Table of Contents
- What is the Prostate?
- What does it do
- What is Prostate Cancer?
- Black Men and Prostate Cancer
- Other Factors
- Risk Factors
- Other Prostate Conditions
- Screening and PSA Test
- Digital Rectal Exam
- Biopsy and Other Tests
- Diagnosis and Staging
- Grading with Gleason Score
- I’ve Been Diagnosed… Now What?
- Active Surveillance
- Other Treatments
- Cost of Treatment in Ontario
- Side Effects
- Lifestyle Changes
- Sexual Health
- For Caregivers: Friends and Family
- What to do Next
Please note that prostate cancer symptoms may be different depending if the cancer is in its early stages or later stages.
Early stage prostate cancer may not have any symptoms or warning signs, therefore it is extremely important to get early prostate cancer screening and checkups with your doctor. This is especially important if you are ≥ 40 years old, of Black or African/Caribbean descent, or have other risk factors. Only around 5% of men discover they have prostate cancer from their symptoms.
Later stage prostate cancer may have some of these signs and symptoms, but please know that having such symptoms does not necessarily mean you have prostate cancer. Only a screening test will help determine if these signs and symptoms are due to prostate cancer. Some of these symptoms may be caused by the natural enlargement of the prostate as men age or from other causes. If you are experiencing some of these symptoms you should discuss it with a doctor and ask for prostate cancer screening.
The signs or symptoms of prostate cancer include:
- more frequent urination (called urinary frequency), especially at night
- a strong or sudden urge to urinate (called urinary urgency)
- trouble starting the flow of urine and straining to urinate
- weak or slow urine stream
- interrupted urine stream
- being unable to empty the bladder completely
- difficulty starting the urine stream (straining)
- having difficulty controlling the bladder (called incontinence), which can cause urine to leak and dribble
- blood in the urine
- burning or pain during urination
- blood in the semen
- painful ejaculation
- trouble getting an erection (called erectile dysfunction)
- pain or stiffness in the bones of the hips, back or chest
- weakness or numbness in the legs or feet
- loss of bowel control
- a cough that doesn’t go away or shortness of breath